The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently revised its COVID-19 guidelines to state that the coronavirus can be spread through aerosols, raising questions about the practices of Maryland nursing homes. It was previously known that the virus could be spread through respiratory droplets, such as when an infected person coughs, talks, and breathes. But experts now say that the virus is also spread through aerosols, which can remain in the air for hours and travel more than six feet. Experts still believe that the virus is mainly spread through respiratory droplets, but believe that airborne transmission does occur. Dr. Anthony Fauci stated that he was pretty confident that there was some airborne transmission of COVID-19.
Aerosols are microscopic droplets or particles and remain suspended in the air for some time, as opposed to respiratory droplets, which drop to the ground. Aerosols can accumulate in a confined space like a poorly ventilated room. Air purifiers and open windows can help to mitigate aerosol transmission by increasing ventilation within a confined space.
Some researchers have raised this issue in regards to nursing homes. Some research reported on one case of a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home with inadequate ventilation. One ward in a nursing home had a rate of 81% positive COVID-19 cases among residents, as opposed to no cases among the other six wards in the nursing home. Based on the low rate of the virus in the community, fast rate of transmission within the ward, the documented poor ventilation, and despite the use of surgical masks, the data suggested that the outbreak was caused by aerosol transmission due to inadequate ventilation.